Authors Host Site SDO Spacecraft Imagery SOHO Spacecraft Imagery Funding Agencies Image Credits Copyrights
Project conception and direction was by Deborah Scherrer
Web design and development
- Deborah Scherrer
- Monica Bobra
- Hilda Bisangwa
- Amara Graps
- Anna Kosovicheva
- Paul J. Mortfield
- Hao Thai
- Scott Winegarden
Medicine Wheel section development
Special thanks to Google, and Jack Veenstra, for providing us with a copy of Keyhole.
- Deborah Scherrer, Project design, development, and coordination
- Troy Cline , NASA/GSFC, primary banner design
- Sarah Gregory, layout and secondary banner design
- Shannon Lee , research and text development
- Philip Scherrer, Keyhole tour development
- Scott Winegarden, sunrise animations
Image credits are given on each page along with the imagery.
Scientific review and feedback
- Todd Hoeksema
- Phil Scherrer
- John Beck
- Leif Svalgaard
- Bala Poduval
- Unless otherwise noted, the activities were developed by Deborah Scherrer, and tested with various teams of teachers.
- Solar Observatories Group
- Stanford Solar Center
- Stanford University
- 452 Lomita Mall
- Stanford, California 94305-4085 USA
- URL: https://solar-center.stanford.edu/
SDO Spacecraft Data and ImageryNASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), whose images and videos are featured prominently on this website, consists of 3 scientific instruments:
Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) - Built by Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory
Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) - Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics
Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Stanford University
SOHO Spacecraft Data and ImageryMany images in the website are from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). SOHO is a mission of international cooperation between ESA (the European Space Agency) and NASA.
Funding AgenciesDevelopment of the Solar Center has been supported financially at Stanford University by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through Grant NAG5-3077. This grant supports Mission Operations and Data Analysis of the Solar Oscillations Investigation Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).
Portions of the work were also supported by the National Science Foundation through grant ATM-9400298 to Stanford University.
- The main website page design was courtesy of Hilda Bisangwa. The stunning image of the solar corona used in the background was taken during the 2008 total eclipse and is copyright 2008 by Miloslav Druckmuller, Peter Aniol, Vojtech Ruzin. Reproduced with permission.
- Imagery credits for the Solar Art section and the Medicine Wheel section are given along with the imagery on the various pages.
- Home page images: Solar Center logo by Bayard ("Butch") Colyear of the Stanford Visual Arts group. Aurora photo by David Fritts, Poker Flat Research Center, Alaska. Very Large Array radio telescope photo by Deborah Scherrer, used with permission. Colorful Sun thumbnails from the EIT instrument on the SOHO spacecraft. The image of Stanford was taken by Phillip Rittmuller, an engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. The combination image of a solar flare with an oscillation model superimposed was developed by Bala The NASA and NSF logos belong to their respective agencies.
- Many of the solar images were produced by the various instrument teams on the SOHO spacecraft. Use of SOHO images for public education efforts and non-commercial purposes is strongly encouraged and requires no expressed authorization. It is requested, however, that any such use properly attributes the source of the images as: "Courtesy of SOHO/(instrument name) consortium. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA."
- The magnetograms are from the MDI instrument on the SOHO spacecraft. The MDI instrument was designed and built by the Solar Observatories Group at Stanford University and the Lockheed-Martin Palo Alto Research Laboratory. SOI-MDI images are available for reproduction for educational, news, and informational purposes, as long as the following citation is given:
"Image(s) courtesy of the SOHO/SOI-MDI project of the Stanford Lockheed Institute for Space Research. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA."
- The solar x-ray images are from the Yohkoh mission of ISAS, Japan. The Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope is a collaborative project of the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the University of Tokyo, supported by NASA and ISAS.
- The Greek analemma photographs are copyright 2001-2004, Anthony Ayiomamitis ( https://perseus.gr) All rights reserved. Used with permission.
- The active sun magnetogram courtesy of Jack Harvey, National Solar Observatories, NOAO.
- The animated rotating sun and animated solar art courtesy of David Hathaway, Marshall Space Flight Center.
- The red solar loop image couresty of the St. Andrews Solar Group, UK.
- The black hole signature spectrum and description were created with support to Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., from NASA contract NAS5-26555, and are reproduced with permission from AURA/STScI. Digital renditions of images produced by AURA/STScI are obtainable royalty-free for educational and non-profit use.
- The solar eclipse icon is from the High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder, CO.
- The beautiful background for the Native American folklore pages was created by Brad Snowder of the Western Washington University Planetarium . Many of the Native American stories are from his Starlore of Native America site. Used with permission.
- The raven image on some of the Native American folklore pages is actually a head-dress. The body is leather (or some kind of fabric) and serves as a hat. The wings fold down over the wearer's ears, and the tail folds back over one's neck. The beak protrudes from one's forehead. The artifact was produced by the Haida tribe of the Pacific Northwest. It is owned by the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institutes. Washington D.C. The photographer is Don Eiler. The source for this info is: "Native American Arts and Crafts." Colin F. Taylor Ph.D et al. Salamander Books Ltd. 1995. London, page 98.
- A few of the nifty little sun and star icons are courtesy of Randy D. Ralph's .
Copyrights & Permitted UsesMany of the solar images were produced by the various instrument teams on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and NASA/ESA's SOHO spacecraft. Use of SDO and SOHO images for public education efforts and non-commercial purposes is strongly encouraged and requires no expressed authorization. It is requested, however, that any such use properly attributes the source of the images as: "Courtesy of NASA SDO/(instrument name)" or "Courtesy of SOHO/(instrument name) consortium. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA."
Images owned by individual photographers and artists are so noted on the pages where they appear. These images may be Copyright © with all rights reserved of the creator. If you wish to use them, contact the individual owner.
All images and text not credited otherwise are Copyright (c) 1996-2023 by the Stanford SOLAR Center, Solar Observatories Group, Stanford University, CA. All rights reserved. Reproduction of SDO, SOHO, NASA, and Solar Center owned images is permitted and strongly encouraged for educational purposes as long as credit is given to the the appropriate sources.
For information about the use of copyrighted material, see: Copyright Law Materials