Authors Host Site SDO Spacecraft Imagery SOHO Spacecraft Imagery Funding Agencies Image Credits Copyrights


Project conception and direction was by Deborah Scherrer

Web design and development

Deborah Scherrer
Monica Bobra
Hilda Bisangwa
Amara Graps
Anna Kosovicheva
Paul J. Mortfield
Hao Thai
Scott Winegarden

Medicine Wheel section development

Deborah Scherrer, Project design, development, and coordination
Troy Cline , NASA/GSFC, primary banner design
Sarah Gregory, layout and secondary banner design
Shannon Lee , research and text development
Philip Scherrer, Keyhole tour development
Scott Winegarden, sunrise animations
Special thanks to Google, and Jack Veenstra, for providing us with a copy of Keyhole.

Image credits are given on each page along with the imagery.

Scientific review and feedback

Todd Hoeksema
Phil Scherrer
John Beck
Leif Svalgaard
Bala Poduval


Unless otherwise noted, the activities were developed by Deborah Scherrer, and tested with various teams of teachers.

Host Site

SDO Spacecraft Data and Imagery

NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), whose images and videos are featured prominently on this website, consists of 3 scientific instruments:
Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) - Built by Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory
Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) - Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics
Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Stanford University

SOHO Spacecraft Data and Imagery

Many images in the website are from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). SOHO is a mission of international cooperation between ESA (the European Space Agency) and NASA.

Funding Agencies

Development of the Solar Center has been supported financially at Stanford University by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through Grant NAG5-3077. This grant supports Mission Operations and Data Analysis of the Solar Oscillations Investigation Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).

Portions of the work were also supported by the National Science Foundation through grant ATM-9400298 to Stanford University.

Image Credits

Copyrights & Permitted Uses

Many of the solar images were produced by the various instrument teams on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and NASA/ESA's SOHO spacecraft. Use of SDO and SOHO images for public education efforts and non-commercial purposes is strongly encouraged and requires no expressed authorization. It is requested, however, that any such use properly attributes the source of the images as: "Courtesy of NASA SDO/(instrument name)" or "Courtesy of SOHO/(instrument name) consortium. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA."

Images owned by individual photographers and artists are so noted on the pages where they appear. These images may be Copyright © with all rights reserved of the creator. If you wish to use them, contact the individual owner.

All images and text not credited otherwise are Copyright (c) 1996-2023 by the Stanford SOLAR Center, Solar Observatories Group, Stanford University, CA. All rights reserved. Reproduction of SDO, SOHO, NASA, and Solar Center owned images is permitted and strongly encouraged for educational purposes as long as credit is given to the the appropriate sources.

For information about the use of copyrighted material, see: Copyright Law Materials