About the Ionosphere - Space Weather Monitors
About the Ionosphere
(NASA/SECEF's Living With a Star website).
"Amateurs detect effects on Earth". Sky and Telescope, 109,
(2005 May). Available at
Contreira, D., Rodrigues F. S., Makita K., and Brum, C. G. (2004). "An experiment to
study solar flare effects on radio-communication signals". Advances in Space
Research, 36(12), 2455-2459.
- K. Davies, Ionospheric Radio, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., 1990.
Mostly deals with HF but has a chapter on LF, VLF, and ELF.
He provides a general discussion of propagation and then ends
up with: "More detailed treatments require extensive use of
large computer programs." High school students might find the
presentation in this book scary.
- J. K. Hargreaves, The Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Cambridge, 1992.
This is a good survey of everything sun to earth. Math is mostly
incidental, and you can get the idea by reading the text and
studying the figures. Short discussion of VLF (3.5.3) for remote
- R. A. Helliwell, Whistlers and Related Ionospheric
Phenomena, Dover, 1965 (reprinted 2006.)
This reprint mostly deals with "natural radio" but
has some relevant discussion on earth-ionosphere
Some terminology is a bit dated. Aimed at a
grad student audience.
- R. D. Hunsucker, Radio Techniques for Probing the Terrestrial
Ionosphere, Springer-Verlag, 1991.
There is a brief discussion of VLF techniques in chapter 9.
Background information is more grad student oriented.
- Khanal, S. (2004), "The Effect of Solar
Flares on the VLF Radio Waves Transmitted in the Ionosphere";
Leary, W. E. "Scientists say next solar cycle will be stronger but delayed;"
New York Times (2006, March 6)
- Peter N., "In Iraq, solar storms play havoc with communication;"
Christian Science Monitor, p. 15.
(2003, March 3)
- Radio Frequency. In Wikipedia;
Wikipedia Foundation, Inc..
Image credit: Ionosphere graphic from SECEF's
Living With a Star
website. Used with permission.